|Data heterogeneity in federated learning with Electronic Health Records: Case studies of risk prediction for acute kidney injury and sepsis diseases in critical care.
|Year of Publication
|Rajendran S, Xu Z, Pan W, Ghosh A, Wang F
|PLOS Digit Health
With the wider availability of healthcare data such as Electronic Health Records (EHR), more and more data-driven based approaches have been proposed to improve the quality-of-care delivery. Predictive modeling, which aims at building computational models for predicting clinical risk, is a popular research topic in healthcare analytics. However, concerns about privacy of healthcare data may hinder the development of effective predictive models that are generalizable because this often requires rich diverse data from multiple clinical institutions. Recently, federated learning (FL) has demonstrated promise in addressing this concern. However, data heterogeneity from different local participating sites may affect prediction performance of federated models. Due to acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis' high prevalence among patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU), the early prediction of these conditions based on AI is an important topic in critical care medicine. In this study, we take AKI and sepsis onset risk prediction in ICU as two examples to explore the impact of data heterogeneity in the FL framework as well as compare performances across frameworks. We built predictive models based on local, pooled, and FL frameworks using EHR data across multiple hospitals. The local framework only used data from each site itself. The pooled framework combined data from all sites. In the FL framework, each local site did not have access to other sites' data. A model was updated locally, and its parameters were shared to a central aggregator, which was used to update the federated model's parameters and then subsequently, shared with each site. We found models built within a FL framework outperformed local counterparts. Then, we analyzed variable importance discrepancies across sites and frameworks. Finally, we explored potential sources of the heterogeneity within the EHR data. The different distributions of demographic profiles, medication use, and site information contributed to data heterogeneity.
|PLOS Digit Health
|PubMed Central ID
|RF1 AG072449 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
Data heterogeneity in federated learning with Electronic Health Records: Case studies of risk prediction for acute kidney injury and sepsis diseases in critical care.
Submitted by chz4003 on April 11, 2023 - 11:57am
Institute of Artificial Intelligence for Digital Health